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Are You Eligible for Food Stamps Now? Maybe, but It’s Complex

The safety net is starting to unravel.

At the end of the month, struggling Americans could lose the extra $600 per week they’ve been receiving in unemployment insurance. Some eviction protections are already expiring.

And as people scramble to afford basic needs, hunger looms.

Tens of millions of Americans are in danger. According to Census Bureau Pulse Survey data released this week, 10.8 percent of American adults are experiencing some level of food insecurity. Louisiana, Nevada and Ohio had the highest rates: 17 to 18 percent. Food lines have been a feature of newspaper front pages and home pages for months now.

And yet there is a program that may be able to help millions of struggling Americans. One that was underused even before the coronavirus crisis: food stamps, or as they are known in most places now, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.

Policy experts and social services administrators are hoping that everyone whose income has gone to zero or close to it will at least ask. “If you’ve never accessed these benefits before, it may be because of the way that SNAP in particular has been portrayed or vilified,” said Carlos M. Rodriguez, president and chief executive of the Community FoodBank of New Jersey, which helps people sign up for SNAP. “People do not understand that this program is here for them at this exact time.”

SNAP is overseen by the Department of Agriculture, which lays out the rules. States handle applications and administration, and they have some leeway with the federal regulations. (And with the terms: Missouri still uses the older “food stamp” phrasing.)

As a result, it’s possible to offer some general guidelines for understanding how the program works, but your state has the final word. The rules are numerous and complicated, but there are exceptions and waivers that might apply to you — so don’t be deterred.

In the 2018 fiscal year, 39.7 million people qualified in an average month. To do so, they usually had to pass both income tests and asset tests, though households with elderly or disabled people may face less strict rules.

In most places, someone living alone can have a gross monthly income of no more than $1,354 and a net income of $1,041. For a family of four, the gross income limit is $2,790 while the net income limit is $2,146. The Food and Nutrition Service of the Department of Agriculture lists these limits and many other rules on its website via a SNAP frequently asked questions page.

Net income figures account for deductions that the program allows. Those deductions include allowances for earnings (to encourage work), dependent care, certain medical expenses and unusually large housing costs. Applicants generally have to provide documentation.

Money you receive from unemployment payments may reduce or eliminate your SNAP eligibility. Still, if unemployment is your only income and you have few assets, it’s worth applying for SNAP to see if you qualify.

The cap on assets is $2,250, or $3,500 if a household has someone 60 or older or someone with a disability. Homes and most retirement plan balances don’t count. Vehicles can count, though states have leeway to set those rules.

Yes, two of them.

First, if you’re between the ages of 16 and 59, you’re supposed to enroll in relevant state training programs, accept suitable offers of employment and not quit voluntarily or choose to work less than 30 hours per week. But there are exceptions, including for people caring for children under 6 years old or incapacitated adults, and those who have a physical or mental limitation or are participating regularly in a drug or alcohol treatment program.

There’s another set of rules for people between the ages of 18 and 49 who are both able bodied and have no dependents, including working or participating in a work program at least 80 hours per month. You can read more about them on the Department of Agriculture’s website.

Waivers sometimes apply to work rules as well, which is why it’s important to apply for SNAP if you’re not sure how your own work situation applies, instead of just assuming that you’re ineligible.

You apply through your state. The Department of Agriculture has a map-based directory on its website, and the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities has collected additional state-by-state information.

For people with no internet access, SNAP’s phone number is 1-800-221-5689. There or via the 211 phone service in many areas, you can likely find a state program’s phone number.

Most states have online applications and calculators that screen for eligibility. The application process usually includes an interview, which can often happen over the phone. The process is supposed to take no more than 30 days, and it could take less than a week if your income or assets are particularly low.

To gain access to benefits, you’ll use an electronic benefit transfer card that works like a debit card in grocery stores. You’ll need to be ready to recertify eligibility from time to time, which can be a major obstacle for struggling individuals who may also be trying to navigate uncertain unemployment schedules or commute without a reliable vehicle.

“A lot of people roll off at that point,” said Pamela Herd, a Georgetown University professor and an expert on the “administrative burdens” that keep otherwise eligible people from getting access to many public programs.

People who have less get more, but there are limits and they depend on your family size.

The maximum monthly allotment for a one-person household is $194. For a family of four, the cap is $646. Cost-of-living adjustments may change those amounts in Alaska, Hawaii, Guam and the Virgin Islands.

Sometimes, yes. A 2018 Government Accountability Office report found that 57 percent of low-income students who seemed potentially eligible for SNAP (and had at least one other additional factor that suggested they were food insecure) did not report receiving SNAP benefits. That was about 1.8 million people.

Moreover, investigators found that state SNAP employees and some federal officials admitted confusion about student eligibility rules.

SNAP rules generally keep students whose parents are supporting them (or those on a meal plan) from getting benefits. Others who have little income or assets should consult the Agriculture Department’s bare-bones guidance and inquire further with their state if they think they might qualify. The Hope Center for College, Community and Justice at Temple University has a guide for colleges and universities that want to help students.

It depends. If you’re receiving Supplemental Security Income benefits, you should definitely apply for SNAP. In many instances, someone from a Social Security office may be able to help.

Some people receiving Social Security retirement benefits may be eligible for SNAP, too, but as of 2015, fewer than half of eligible older Americans were receiving benefits. The Department of Agriculture has a separate section of its website laying out the different eligibility rules for elderly and disabled people.

Carrie R. Welton, director of policy at the Hope Center, a research and advocacy group, said your first stop should still be the state agency that determines eligibility. Caseworkers can be both helpful and empathetic: Ms. Welton recalled her own time on public assistance, when the person on the other side of the desk started to cry when she realized that Ms. Welton would need to stop attending college full time if she hoped to maintain her benefits.

Other organizations may be able to help. Part of Ms. Welton’s work involves translating federal and state policy to help students who may be eligible for SNAP and other benefits. College financial aid offices may be able to assist students, too.

Help may also be available at your local food bank (several hundred colleges and universities have food banks as well). You can find a food bank near you using the ZIP code tool on Feeding America’s website.

“We’re pursuing the initiative to feed the people in the lines but help shorten them as well,” said Mr. Rodriguez, the Community FoodBank of New Jersey president. “SNAP puts dollars in people’s hands to shop the way you and I do.”

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For Most Food Stamp Users, Online Shopping Isn’t an Option

Whether they need more yeast for stress baking or the comfort of Kraft macaroni and cheese, Americans sequestered by social distancing are shopping for groceries online. But for many low-income households using food stamps, that can happen only in person.

About 38 million people receive benefits through the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, but how they can use them is often limited by technology or government policy. That means they must walk the aisles, increasing the possibility of coronavirus exposure for a group of Americans that includes the poor, older people and those with disabilities.

Ariel Smith, 23, has a connective tissue syndrome that makes it difficult for her to work, and the idea of visiting a store makes her nervous.

“With any chronic health condition, your body is working so hard to keep you stable, so there is not a lot of bandwidth for something like Covid-19,” said Ms. Smith, who lives in Austin, Texas.

She receives about $195 in SNAP benefits each month, but her state does not offer a way to use that money online. Most don’t, although Texas and several other states have recently signed up for a pilot program that would expand that access.

Congress authorized the pilot program six years ago, but it got off the ground only last year — and advocates for low-income Americans say it could have made a bigger difference during the pandemic if the government and other stakeholders had moved faster.

“It should have happened yesterday, and it should be accessible to everyone,” said Patricia Baker, a senior policy analyst at the Massachusetts Law Reform Institute, an advocacy group for low-income people.

Some stores are using a workaround that doesn’t require coordinating with the government: allowing SNAP recipients to place orders online and then swipe their benefit cards when they pick up their groceries. The nearest grocer to Ms. Smith’s home, H-E-B, told her that it was working on a way to do that; the chain said this week that it was testing curbside payment.

But that’s possible only if a store’s system is already set up to allow customers to place an order and pay later. Stores that require online payment for delivery or pickup can do so for SNAP recipients only if their state is part of the pilot program set up by the Agriculture Department.

The program is fully operational in nine states: New York, the first to join a year ago; Washington; Alabama; Iowa; Oregon; Nebraska; Florida; and Kentucky and California, both of which started this week. Two retailers, Walmart and Amazon, are participating in all those states.

The District of Columbia and several states — Arizona, Idaho, North Carolina, West Virginia, Missouri, Texas and Vermont — have signed up over the last month but are not yet up and running. Once they are, the pilot program will cover more than half the country’s SNAP participants, according to the Agriculture Department.


Credit…Sergio Flores for The New York Times

Credit…Ruth Fremson/The New York Times

Though the Trump administration was criticized before the pandemic for rules that cut eligibility and other proposals that would trim benefits, Agriculture Secretary Sonny Perdue said the agency was expanding these more innovative programs and making them more flexible.

“Enabling people to purchase foods online will go a long way in helping Americans follow C.D.C. social distancing guidelines and help slow the spread of the coronavirus,” he said.

Ellen Vollinger, legal director at the Food Research & Action Center, said it was important for SNAP recipients to be on “equal footing” with other customers and suggested that the pilot program was just one way the government could help them maintain social distancing.

“The administration should be using other available tools as well, such as leveraging the capacity of the hard-hit restaurant sector to deliver meals to SNAP participants,” she said.

Some stores are using curbside pickup to broaden access even if they’re not part of the pilot. Walmart allows online customers to swipe their benefit cards at most of its grocery pickup locations. Kroger, a grocery chain in 35 states, began offering curbside SNAP payment in recent weeks.

Hy-Vee and Stop & Shop, part of Ahold Delhaize, which also owns several other large supermarket brands, said it was working on a way to allow SNAP recipients to pay curbside. Meijer, a grocery chain in the Midwest, said it was researching how to incorporate SNAP payments into its current process.

Some major chains — Aldi, Publix, Winn-Dixie, Dash’s Market and Albertson’s, which owns brands including Safeway — declined to comment or did not respond to messages.

Many lawmakers have pressed for broader access to the pilot program. Last month, 58 Democrats in Congress sent a letter to Mr. Perdue urging his agency to expand the program nationwide and add more retailers to the mix.

“This is a critical need for many Americans, especially senior citizens who cannot leave their homes,” they wrote.

Once a state is onboard with the project, any grocery retailer that already accepts food stamps can participate, according to Agriculture Department. But even then, it’s a complicated process with several technological hurdles to clear.

“It has been somewhat of a daunting I.T. lift for them, and there is some concern it could freeze other parts of the system,” Ms. Baker said.

The retailer’s website must be able to differentiate between SNAP-eligible food items (which aren’t taxed) and everything else — and split transactions so people can pay with SNAP and another payment form if necessary. The system must also accept a PIN, a four-digit code used by cardholders for security purposes, something that few retailers are equipped to process.

There are other complications, too. By law, food stamp recipients cannot use benefits to pay for delivery fees; merchants can waive or lower them, or accept another form of payment for any extra charges.

But even adding online payment abilities will not solve the problems of SNAP recipients who live in so-called food deserts.

Angela Boon, 51, has not been able to find a service that delivers to her rural home in Fordland, Mo., about 20 miles outside Springfield.

Ms. Boon has lupus and other autoimmune disorders, and doesn’t feel comfortable taking the bus to the nearest market where she can buy fruit, vegetables and other goods with her $195 monthly benefit.

The Walmart she would visit before the outbreak doesn’t deliver perishables in her area, but she and her family have been able to shop online for some packaged and processed foods that can be shipped easily. Schwan’s, the frozen-food delivery service, does accept SNAP cards on delivery — but it requires customers to hold their orders with a credit card, something Ms. Boon said she didn’t have.

Once Missouri is fully participating in the program, she’ll be able to use her benefits card more easily, but for fresh produce and meat, she will still have to get on the bus.

“I don’t want to test that out,” she said.

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What’s in President Trump’s Fiscal 2021 Budget?

WASHINGTON — President Trump has proposed a record $4.8 trillion budget for the 2021 fiscal year, and while Congress decides what to fund, the document provides a window into the White House’s spending priorities.

The president’s plan includes about $2 trillion in cuts to safety net programs and student loan initiatives. Those reductions encompass new work requirements for Medicaid, federal housing assistance and food stamp recipients, which are estimated to cut nearly $300 billion in spending from the programs. The budget would also cut spending on federal disability insurance benefits by $70 billion and on student loan programs by $170 billion.

Foreign aid, public broadcasting and environmental programs also get cut under Mr. Trump’s proposal. He wants to spend more money on areas like restricting immigration, including an additional $2 billion for his wall along the southern border, and more money to develop state-of-the-art weapons.

The administration’s budget once again calls for eliminating subsidized federal student loans and ending the public service loan forgiveness program, an incentive for teachers, police officers, government workers and other public servants that cancels their remaining federal student loans after a decade of payments. Those proposals were in last year’s budget; Congress failed to adopt them.

The budget proposes cutting the Education Department’s funding by 7.8 percent, to $66.6 billion. It also calls for reduced work-study funding and the creation of a single income-driven loan repayment program, to replace what has become a confusing jumble of different payment plans. Under the administration’s plan, borrowers would pay 12.5 percent of their discretionary income toward their loans, instead of the 10 percent many currently pay.

— Stacy Cowley and Erica L. Green

The budget proposes numerous changes to Medicaid that reduce spending on the health program for the poor and the disabled. Combined with a section of the budget devoted to “health care reform vision,” it cuts spending on Medicaid and subsidies for the Affordable Care Act by a combined trillion dollars.

The budget specifies changes that would tend to reduce enrollment in Medicaid and that the Congressional Budget Office has estimated would cause some states to reverse their expansions of coverage to childless adults without disabilities as part of the Affordable Care Act. Many Medicaid beneficiaries would be subjected to work requirements and asset tests, and states would be pressed to verify eligibility for the program more often under the budget’s proposals, strategies that have been shown to reduce enrollment even among those who are eligible. States that preserve their Medicaid expansions under the Affordable Care Act would be asked to gradually pay a larger share of the medical bills for those patients.

The budget would also reduce the federal share of spending for all Medicaid patients, by changing rules about how states can offer extra payments to certain health care facilities run by state or county governments, a policy that the administration has already proposed as a regulation. It would reduce a funding stream meant for hospitals that serve a “disproportionate share” of uninsured patients.

The budget also makes some small expansions of Medicaid coverage: It would allow states the option to cover inpatient care for psychiatric care or drug addiction treatment.

— Margot Sanger-Katz

For Medicare, which the president has repeatedly pledged to leave untouched, the budget includes more than a dozen proposals to streamline the program and eliminate what the document describes as waste. Altogether, those strategies save around half a trillion dollars over the decade. But the changes do not represent major structural changes to the program that would reduce benefits or limit who would be eligible for the programs. Many of these shifts were included in President Barack Obama’s budgets as well.

Among the changes: Doctors would be paid the same price for services, regardless of whether they work for a hospital or a private practice. It also includes an effort to reduce payments to long-term care hospitals for patients after they are discharged from a regular hospital.

The budget suggests, for the first time, allowing Americans over 65 to opt out of Medicare entirely if they wish. And it would allow Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in a high-deductible health plan to set aside more tax-free savings for health expenses.

It also calls on Congress to pass legislation to reduce the prices paid for prescription drugs. Such legislation, should it be developed and passed, would almost certainly cut spending by Medicare, which is among one of the budget’s costliest items.

— Margot Sanger-Katz

The president’s budget would cut funding for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention by 9 percent overall. But it would raise funding levels for the center’s infectious disease activities. The White House budget said its cuts reflect an attempt to “refocus” the CDC on its core mission of preventing and controlling infectious disease and other emerging public health issues, such as opioids.”

The budget also targets specific programs meant to fight particular cancers and prevent common chronic diseases, combining them into smaller, combined funding streams.

— Margot Sanger-Katz

The administration reserved some of its deepest cuts for the Environmental Protection Agency, which would face a 26 percent reduction in funding and the elimination of 50 programs Mr. Trump deemed “wasteful” or duplicative.

That’s about the level the administration has moved to cut the E.P.A. in past years, but Congress has typically restored much of the funding. Last year, for example, lawmakers ultimately provided $9.1 billion to the agency, replacing popular programs the administration had tried to eliminate like federal efforts to clean up the Great Lakes and the Chesapeake Bay.

According to 2021 budget documents the Trump administration has proposed $6.7 billion in total E.P.A. spending, which would shrink the agency to funding levels it last saw during the 1990s. A budget summary said the administration aims to prioritize “core functions” like addressing lead exposure in water and revitalizing former toxic cleanup sites. On the chopping block are programs the administration deemed “outside of the E.P.A.’s core mission” like beach cleanup.

The budget does not mention climate change. It also states misleadingly that air pollutant emissions dropped between 2016 and 2018, and credited the Trump administration with overseeing “some of the cleanest air and water in the world” while eliminating clean air and water regulations.

After a decade of improvement in air quality nationally, federal data last year showed that fine particulate pollution has increased in the last two years.

At the same time, the budget promotes a fossil fuel “energy boom” in the United States, including an increase in the production of natural gas and crude oil, both of which release carbon dioxide emissions responsible for warming the planet.

Republicans in Congress this week are preparing to unveil a climate change agenda that focuses heavily on funding for “innovation” — like the development of carbon capture technology to store the planet-warming carbon dioxide that is released from power plants, or batteries to store solar power during periods of low demand. But under Mr. Trump’s 2021 budget plan, the Department of Energy, which oversees such federal research, would undergo a 29 percent cut to all programs not related to nuclear weapons and defense.

— Lisa Friedman

The administration once again suggested cutting funds for America’s primary food assistance program and continued an effort to reduce the number of adults who can qualify for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, or SNAP.

The budget reduces SNAP funding by about $180 billion between 2021 and 2030.

The White House has been making changes to the program on its own, including toughening eligibility requirements and cracking down on states that “misuse” work requirement waivers. In keeping with that approach, the budget proposes one set of work requirements for adults ages 18 to 65 who are able to work, rather than making a distinction on whether those adults have children or not. All adults who are able to work would have to engage in “at least 20 hours or more” of work or training in order to qualify for benefits.

The budget also keeps Mr. Trump’s controversial “Harvest Box” proposal in place, continuing to suggest that poor Americans who receive SNAP benefits get a portion of their benefit in a “Harvest Box” full of food preselected for nutritional value and economic benefit to American farmers. The cache of cheaper peanut butter, canned goods, pasta, cereal, “shelf stable” milk and other products would now be selected by the federal government, not by the people eating it.

The a White House official said the changes were necessary given that too many Americans remain on public assistance.

“Despite significant economic improvement and a strong job market, participation has not yet declined to prerecession levels, and too many people are still missing the opportunity to move from dependence to self-sufficiency,” the budget said.

— Lola Fadulu

Mr. Trump proposed to again cut funding for the Department of Housing and Urban Development, including programs that help pay for rental assistance for low-income people.

The budget proposes a 15.2 percent decrease in gross discretionary funding from 2020 and eliminates several block grant programs. The administration argues that some of the programs, such as the Community Development Block Grant, are not effective and that the funding could be redirected to other priorities, such as national security. The budget eliminates the Choice Neighborhoods Program, which awards grants to neighborhoods with deteriorating public and federally assisted housing, arguing that states and local governments are better able to revitalize neighborhoods.

Mr. Trump also requested less money for rental assistance programs, such as Housing Choice Vouchers, and proposed that tenants who are able to work and receive assistance contribute 35 percent of their income to rent instead of 30 percent.

— Lola Fadulu

The proposed budget slashes discretionary funding for the Commerce Department, which monitors the weather, collects economic data, promotes exports, issues patents and other duties, by more than 37 percent, the largest single cut to any agency. More than half of that decrease, though, was a reflection of decreased spending on the 2020 census, which will not be repeated next year.

The budget also pares money for the trade adjustment assistance program, which is run through the Labor Department. The program offers training and support to workers who have lost their jobs as a result of outsourcing, but it has faced criticism that it may actually end up making its recipients worse off, by temporarily taking them out of the work force for training. The Trump administration has proposed refocusing the program more on apprenticeships and on-the-job training.

The cuts to the Commerce Department budget also include various reductions to economic development programs, which the administration says are duplicated elsewhere.

The budget requests additional funding for investments in areas considered crucial for American competitiveness, particularly advanced technology, including artificial intelligence, quantum computing, advanced manufacturing and 5G telecom networks.

The White House has proposed allowing the Commerce Department to auction off more telecom spectrum to private companies, one of the main bottlenecks in the country’s effort to advance 5G. The change would give private companies more access to a scarce resource and generate $670 million over the next 10 years, the administration said.

— Ana Swanson

Mr. Trump’s budget requests $2 billion to build 82 miles of border wall along the border with Mexico, as the Homeland Security Department rushes to complete 450 miles of barriers by 2021. The administration has completed nearly 120 miles thus far, almost all of it on federal land and in areas where there were sections of dilapidated wall or vehicle barriers.

The $2 billion is significantly less than the $5 billion in wall funding that Mr. Trump sought a year ago, which resulted in a five-week government shutdown. While Congress has previously agreed to provide only $1.375 billion for wall construction, Mr. Trump has found a way to secure money for his wall without congressional approval by shifting billions of dollars from military construction projects and programs used to crack down on narcotics activity.

The proposal also includes $182 million to hire 750 Border Patrol agents and build processing centers for agents and another $544 million to hire more than 4,600 Immigration and Customs Enforcement agents and immigration court prosecutors.

The White House budget includes $3.1 billion for a daily average of 60,000 beds in ICE detention centers, an increase from the 54,000 the White House requested last year. The increase in the budget request shows that the administration is likely to keep working to crack down on illegal immigration in the coming year.

— Zolan Kanno-Youngs

The White House has proposed a $105 billion budget — a 14 percent increase — for Veterans Affairs, including additional funding for suicide prevention, opioid addiction services and health care. Such boosts have become fairly routine and tend to enjoy bipartisan support.

However, the White House again proposed changes to cost-of-living calculations, which are used to determine payments for pensions and other compensation. The plan, which would “round down” the money owed to the nearest whole dollar, has sparked pushback from veterans and lawmakers, who say it unfairly robs veterans of money.

— Thomas Gibbons-Neff

The White House officially proposed moving the Secret Service from the Department of Homeland Security to the Treasury Department.

Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin has been in talks with D.H.S. officials and members of Congress to secure an agreement over legislation that would return Secret Service to Treasury, where it existed ahead of the national security reshuffling that occurred after the Sept. 11, 2001 attacks. The budget argues that moving it would “create new efficiencies” in the investigation of financial crimes and prepare the United States to face “the threats of tomorrow,” such as the use of cryptocurrencies to finance terrorism.

There appears to be bipartisan support for the move, but Mr. Mnuchin’s unwillingness to provide documents ahead of the 2020 election on what it has cost the Secret Service to protect the president and his family has complicated the effort.

The Trump administration wants to allocate $2.4 billion to the Secret Service, up from $2.3 billion a year ago.

— Alan Rappeport

Funding for the State Department and international aid programs would be cut by $3.7 billion, or nearly 8 percent, from current spending levels. It would dramatically reduce or eliminate aid to international organizations, including the United Nations.

The overall $44.1 billion spending proposal does away with discretionary funds for unplanned expenses overseas by the United States Agency for International Development and 12 other agencies that work with the State Department.

It also eliminates funding for a food aid program that officials described as too slow to meet needs, economic and development accounts that impede direct assistance to specific countries in Europe and Asia, and for the Asia Foundation, a nonprofit that boosts good governance and empowers women.

Programs that would receive fewer funds include peacekeeping efforts by the United Nations, which would be cut by $447 million, and the United States’ annual contribution to the world body itself, by $508 million.

The Trump administration has long complained that the United States pays 22 percent of the United Nations’ annual budget, more than any other country. In 2018, the administration ended funding to the United Nations agency that helps Palestinian refugees and tried to curb a peacekeeping mission in southern Lebanon — both as Mr. Trump sought to bolster Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu ahead of elections in Israel.

— Lara Jakes

The administration proposes moving the Center for Tobacco Products out of the Food and Drug Administration and into a separate agency under the Department of Health and Human Services.

It is not a complete surprise, as Joe Grogan, the White House head of the Domestic Policy Council, said at a news conference in November that he didn’t think the F.D.A. should regulate tobacco. But the proposal is likely to face significant opposition on Capitol Hill. Congress gave the F.D.A. the authority to regulate tobacco and vaping products under the passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009. It has taken years for the agency to adopt policies for overseeing tobacco and vaping products. During that time, e-cigarettes emerged as an epidemic among teenagers.

The current budget for the F.D.A. tobacco center is $662 million, and the president’s budget asks for an additional $100 million. The director of the new agency would require Senate confirmation.

— Sheila Kaplan


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